The appearance of the basic law of Medina was an important milestone in the final period of Muhammad's life. This law united disparate tribes and clans, rallied believers, stopped strife and bloodshed. Recognition of the law has shown that the political consciousness of the Muslim community has reached an important point; Its members define themselves as a full-fledged society, qualitatively different from others.
The basic law also defined the role in society of those who were not Muslim. Jews, for example, became part of the community; They were "zemmi", that is, they were under the protection of Muslims, but only on condition of full observance of their agreements. This turned out to be a precedent, reflected in the mutual relations of peoples during later conquests. Christians and Jews who wished to live in Muslim countries were asked to pay a nominal tax (while Muslims paid mandatory donations - zakat). In exchange, they were given freedom of religion, and they, with the preservation of their status as non-Muslims, became citizens of a Muslim state. However, this status was not applied to the Gentiles, and their stay was considered inadmissible within a society that worshipped only one God.
Ibn Ishaq, one of the early biographers of the Prophet, notes that at this time Muhammad sent letters to the rulers of the countries - the king of Persia, the emperors of Byzantium and Abyssinia, the governor of Egypt and others, urging them to accept Islam. This best illustrates the faith of a small community of people, despite their albeit insignificant military power, proven victory in the "Battle of the Ditch." But his confidence was not unfounded. The Prophet Muhammad concluded an alliance with the Quraysh tribe, the inhabitants of Mecca, so that a year and a half later, fifteen hundred Muslims could safely go for a pilgrimage-worship of God. This was an important milestone in the history of Muslims. Just a short time before, Muhammad left his home town to create an Islamic state in Medina. Now, even by enemies, he was perceived as a leader of believers. In 629, the Prophet returned to Mecca, while there was no bloodshed, no revenge, no extermination. Having met those who have long infuriated believers with evil, the Prophet decides to show spiritual tolerance. His behaviour became a model for Muslims, an example of forgiveness, condescension and kindness. While in Mecca, the Prophet destroyed the idols around the Kaaba, which forever put an end to pagan practice. At the same time, Amr ibn al-As, as the future conqueror of Egypt, and Khalid ibn al Walid, the future 'sword of God,' accepted Islam and swore allegiance to Muhammad. Their transition was especially significant, since more recently these people were zealous opponents of Muhammad.
The return of Muhammad to Mecca was in a sense the culmination of his mission. In 632, after only three years, he suddenly fell ill and on June 8 of the same year, in the presence of his wife Aisha, the messenger of God "died on a warm afternoon".
The death of Muhammad was a huge loss. For his followers, this simple man from Mecca was more than a beloved friend, more than a talented administrator, much more than the leader whom they respected, who created a new state from various warring tribes. Muhammad was also a model of the teachings he gave from God: the teachings of the Qur'an, which throughout the centuries in their thoughts and actions, faith and behaviour guided by a huge number of men and women, and which marked the beginning of a new era in the history of mankind. His death, however, did not affect the development of the society he created in Arabia, and his main mission: the spread of the Qur'an throughout the world. As Abu Bakr said: "Those who worshipped Muhammad, let them know that Muhammad is dead, but those who worshipped God, let them know that God lives and does not die."