The Hudaybiyyah: The appearance of the main law of Medina was an important milestone in the final period of Muhammad’s life. This law unites scattered hitherto tribes and clans, rallied the believers, stopped feuds and bloodshed.
The recognition of the law has shown that the political consciousness of the Muslim community has reached an important point; its members define themselves as a full-fledged society, qualitatively different from others. The Basic Law also defined the role in society of those who were not Muslim. Jews, for example, became part of the community; they were “dimmy”, that is, were under the protection of Muslims, but only under the condition of full compliance with their agreements. This turned out to be a precedent affecting the relations of the peoples during the later conquests. Christians and Jews who wished to live in Muslim countries were asked to pay a nominal tax (while Muslims paid compulsory donations – Zakat). In exchange, they were granted freedom of religion, and they, while maintaining their status as non-Muslims, became citizens of a Muslim state. However, this status was not applied to the pagans, and their stay was considered unacceptable within the framework of a society that worships only God.
Ibn Ishaq, one of the early biographers of the Prophet, notes that at this time Muhammad sent letters to the rulers of the countries – the king of Persia, the emperors of Byzantium and Abyssinia, the governor of Egypt and others, urging them to accept Islam. This best illustrates the faith of a small community of people, despite their albeit insignificant military power, proved by a victory in the “Battle of the Trench”. But his confidence was not unreasonable. The Prophet Muhammad (saw) concluded an alliance for peace with the Quraish tribe – the inhabitants of Mecca, so that after a year and a half thousand Muslims could safely go to make a pilgrimage – the worship of God by visiting Kaaba. This was an important milestone in the history of Muslims. Shortly before that, Muhammad left his home-town to create an Islamic state in Medina. Now, even by enemies, he was perceived as the leader of the believers. In the 629th year, the Prophet returns to Mecca, while there was no bloodshed, no revenge, no extermination. Having met with those who have long caused evil to believers, the Prophet decides to show spiritual tolerance. His behavior has become the standard for Muslims, an example of forgiveness, condescension and kindness. While in Mecca, the Prophet destroyed the idols around the Ka’bah, which forever put an end to pagan practice. At the same time, Amr ibn al-As as the future conqueror of Egypt, and Khalid ibn al-Walid, the future which called “The Sword of God“, accepted Islam and swore allegiance to Muhammad. Their transition was particularly significant, since most recently these people were zealous opponents of Muhammad.
Muhammad’s return to Mecca was in a sense the culmination of his mission. In 632, after three years, he suddenly fell ill and on June 8 of that same year, in the presence of his wife Aisha, the messenger of God “died in the warm afternoon”.
The death of Muhammad was a tremendous loss. For his followers, this simple man from Mecca was more than a beloved friend, more than a talented administrator, much more than the leader they revered, who created a new state from various warring tribes. Muhammad was also a model of the teachings from God: the teachings of the Quran, which over the centuries guided a great number of men and women in their thoughts and actions, faith and behavior, and which marked the beginning of a new era in the history of humanity. His death, however, did not affect the development of society that he created in Arabia, and his main mission: spreading the Quran throughout the world. As Abu Bakr said: “Those who worshiped Muhammad, let them know that Muhammad is died, but those who worshiped Allah (God), let them know that Allah lives and does not die.”