Ruling Of Usman Ibn Affan: Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph of Islam, ended his life martyrdom. During the morning prayer, a slave named Abu Liu ‘Liu’, a Persian fire worshiper, came up to him, the unsuspecting one, and struck him several times with a knife. When Umar was lying on his deathbed, people gathered around him asked to appoint a successor. Umar established a committee of six people, instructed them to choose the next Muslim Caliph among themselves.
The committee included Ali ibn Abu Talib, Usman Ibn Affan, Talhah ibn Ubaydallah, Wakkas, Az-Zubayr ibn al-Awam, Abdur-Rahman ibn Auf and Sa’d ibn Abu, who were the closest companions of the Prophet (saw), and in life they received the news of entry into Paradise.
According to the will of Umar, the Committee was to choose a successor within three days, and by the fourth day he had to take over the reins. After two days, the decision was never made, and members of the committee were worried that the deadline for choosing new Muslim leader (the Caliph) was about to over, and the problem remained unresolved and, apparently, would not be solved in the near future. Out of the current situation, Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf, who decided to withdraw his candidacy with the condition that if others agree with him to choose the new caliph, All agreed and he proposed. Abdur-Rahman interviewed each candidate, and also went around the residents of Medina to find out about their choice. Finally, he appointed Usman Ibn Affan as the new Muslim leader (caliph), since most people chose him.
Usman Ibn Affan Life as Caliph
Usman continued to lead a modest life, even becoming the ruler of an Islamic state. A successful merchant like him would be more suited to a luxurious lifestyle, but he never sought it. His only goal was to get into the beautiful world, to Paradise, because he knew that in this world is only temporary. Uthman remained generous after becoming a Caliph.
The work of the caliphs was paid from the treasury, but Usman never received any payment for his service to Islam. In addition, he also introduced the custom of freeing slaves every Friday, cared for widows and orphans, and constantly distributed alms. Such qualities of his character as patience and endurance made him an outstanding ruler.
During his reign, Usman achieved a great deal. He continued to pacify Persia, protect the Muslim state from the Byzantines, annexed Libya to his empire and subjugated most of Armenia. Usman, with the help of his cousin Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, the ruler of Syria, created the Arab Navy, which conducted a number of important battles with the Byzantines.
But much more important for Islam was the fact that Usman collected the text of the Quran in the order in which he revealed to the Prophet. Realizing that if he did not do this, then the revelation of God in the future may be distorted or different versions of the same scripture appear, he appointed a commission to collect canonical texts and destroy all other options. As a result, the text remained, which according to the testimony of many Companions corresponded to the reading of the Prophet. It is he who today is accepted throughout the Muslim world.
Opposition of Usman Ibn Affan and His Demise
During his reign, Usman was confronted with growing hostility from the residents of the new lands who recently converted to Islam, who began to accuse him of not following the example of the Prophet and former caliphs in matters relating to government. However, the Companions of the Prophet always defended him. These accusations did not change him. He remained a merciful ruler. Even when his enemies attacked him, he did not use funds from the treasury to protect his house or himself. As the Prophet Muhammad predicted, the enemies of Usman tirelessly impeded his rule, constantly confronted him and accused him. In the end, his opponents conspired against him, surrounded his house and began to incite people to kill him.
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Many of his comrades asked him to stop these attacks, but he did not do this until he was killed while reading the Quran, just as the Prophet had predicted. Usman died as a martyr.
From Anas Ibn Malik he said:
“Once the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) climbed Mount Uhud along with Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman. Suddenly the mountain began to shake. And then the Prophet said, turning to the mountain: “Stop, O Uhud! For on you there is a Prophet of Allah, and also one of the first Muslims and two who are destined to die a martyr’s death” “(Sahih al-Bukhari).