[Q-ID0817] Can the Jummah Salah be prayed at home?
What do the scholars of the Dīn and muftīs of the Sacred Law state regarding the following issue: Can Jum’ah Salāh be prayed at home?
Questioner: Abid from UK
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایۃ الحق والصواب
The blessed Jum’ah Salāh cannot be prayed at home because there are a few conditions for praying Jum’ah; one of which is not being achieved here and that is ‘open permission’, with the rule being that,
“اذا فات الشرط فات المشروط”
“When the condition is not found, that which the condition is a requirement for is therefore also not found.”
Therefore, it is proven that the sacred Friday Salāh cannot be prayed at home. Hence:
It is stated in Hāshiyah Ibn ‘Ābidīn,
“وَالْإِذْنُ الْعَامُّ وَهُوَ أَنْ تُفْتَحَ أَبْوَابُ الْجَامِعِ وَيُؤْذَنَ لِلنَّاسِ، حَتَّى لَوْ اجْتَمَعَتْ جَمَاعَةٌ فِي الْجَامِعِ وَأَغْلَقُوا الْأَبْوَابَ وَجَمَعُوا لَمْ يَجُزْ”
“Open permission is that all the doors of a main central Mosque be open and people have open permission, up to the extent that if there is one Jamā’ah [congregation] taking place in a main central Mosque and Jum’ah is being prayed with the doors locked, then Jum’ah will not be fulfilled.”
[Durr Mukhtār Hāshiyah Ibn ‘Ābidīn (Radd al-Muhtār), vol. 2, p. 152]
It is stated in Durr Mukhtār Sharh Tanwīr al-Absār that
“(الاذن العام) من الامام،(فلو دخل أمير حصنا) أو قصره (وأغلق بابه) وصلى بأصحابه (لم تنعقد)”
“If a well-off person enters with open permission from the Imām, and he [the well-off person] locks the doors and prays Salāh alongside his fellows, then Jum’ah will not be established.”
[Durr Mukhtār Sharh Tanwīr al-Absār, vol. 1, p. 109]
It is stated in Bahār-e-Sharī’at, ‘Open permission i.e. to open the doors of the Mosque – allowing every Muslim who wishes to enter, to do so; no one (Muslim) should be stopped (from entering). If the doors were closed in a central Mosque after the people gathered (for Jum’ah) and then the Jum’ah was performed, it is not valid.’
[Bahār-e-Sharī’at, vol. 1, part 4, p. 770]
It also stated in Bahār-e-Sharī’at itself, ‘There are six conditions that make the performance of Jum’ah correct, and if even one of the conditions is missing, it cannot take place.’
[Bahār-e-Sharī’at, vol. 1, part 4, p. 762]
In light of the aforementioned jurisprudential textual proofs, the ruling will be that Jum’ah Salāh cannot be prayed at home as well because this condition of ‘open permission’ cannot be achieved in the home neither.
واللہ تعالی اعلم ورسولہ اعلم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم
کتبہ ابو الحسن محمد قاسم ضیاء قادری
Answered by Mufti Qasim Zia al-Qadri
Translated by Haider Ali Madani
Read the original Urdu answer here: [Q-ID0817] Can the Jummah Salah be prayed at home?