[Q-ID0805] Does my 11 year old son perform qada for the prayers he has missed?

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QUESTION:

What do the scholars of the Dīn and muftīs of the Sacred Law state regarding the following issue:

I have a 11 year old son, most of the time he performs his Salāh, however during the summer, ‘Ishā Salāh is quite late and Fajr Salāh enters quite early, so in the summer he does not perform these two prayers. Also, he is not yet mature[1], so will he have to perform Qadā’ for these prayers?

[1] the age of puberty – when Islamic laws start becoming applicable.

Questioner: Adeed from UK

ANSWER:

بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایۃ الحق والصواب

Salāh is not obligatory upon the one who has not reached puberty, so for such a child those prayers which were missed are not necessary to be repeated. Our religion of Islām has ordered us to instruct our 7 year old children to perform Salāh so that a natural habit to perform Salāh is instilled within them. Moreover, we are to instruct our 10 year old children with wisdom and some firmness to perform Salāh so that a natural tendency of performing Salāh is embedded.

However, as long as he is not mature, Salāh is not obligatory upon him so he has no Qadā’ to perform. As stated in Fatāwā Hindiyyah,

“أَنَّ الصَّبِيَّ إذَا بَلَغَ ۔۔۔ إنْ بَقِيَ مِقْدَارُ التَّحْرِيمَةِ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ عِنْدَنَا”

“When a child has become mature and the time remaining for the present Salāh is enough to recite Takbīr Tahrimah [i.e. start Salāh], then according to us [Hanafīs] that (current) Salāh is obligatory upon that mature child.”

[al-Fatāwā al-Hindiyyah, vol 1, ch 1,  pg 51]

Moreover, it is written in Bahār-e-Sharī’at that it is Fard ‘Ayn (an Individual Obligation) upon every Mukallaf (Legally Responsible person – meaning every sane & mature person)[1] to perform Salāh.

[Bahār-e-Sharī’at, vol 1, part  pg 443]

[1] Someone who the laws of Islām start becoming applicable to i.e. those who have reached the age of puberty; the minimum age being 9 years for a female and 12 years for a male – this being in accordance with the lunar calendar.

واللہ تعالی اعلم ورسولہ اعلم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم
کتبہ ابو الحسن محمد قاسم ضیاء قادری

Answered by Mufti Qasim Zia al-Qadri
Translated by Bilal Shabir

Read the original Urdu answer here: [Q-ID0805] Does my 11 year old son perform qada for the prayers he has missed?

Also see:

[Q-ID0104] At what age is one considered mature (baligh) in Islam?

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Source: Seekers Path

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