It has been a great debate about the subject of is it allowed in Islam to donate organs? because it is a sensitive and complex matter.
However, human as a special creatures given by Allah SWT mind and ability to think and distinguish between good and bad.
Allah SWT give us an ability to think in the earth to make consideration in our life. As mentioned in the following verse :
Because of that, We decreed upon the Children of Israel that whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption (done) in the land-it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one-it is as if he had saved mankind entirely. And our messengers had certainly come to them with clear proofs. The indeed many of them, (even) after that, throughout the land, were transgressors.” (QS. Al-Ma’idah : 32)
From the above verse we clearly can see that Allah SWT encouraged His people to save other people life since the impact will be equal to saving all mankind entirely.
Donating organs in Islam is allowed but under some circumstances because this action is classified as alms of helping other people in needs.
There are several things that can be donated or given as the form of alms such as money, stuff, land, house, or other wealth, but most importantly is organs as part of the body which are more important and more valuable compared to other assets. Read about law of not reading dua after wudhu.
As long as the intention of donating organs is for Allah SWT and to get close to Him, then this deed is included as an important and noble deed.
Opinions about Donating Organs
Scholars have two different opinions about donating organs according to islamic law.
Some scholars allowed donating organs under strict requirement and another scholars strongly forbidden this actions under any circumstances. Read about prohibitions of speculation in Islam.
The view that prohibit donating organs
Organ donations are very common nowadays in line with the technological developments, especially in the health sector.
According to some scholars we are allowed to donate certain organs under strictly rules and requirement.
Organ’s donor appear because of necessity, to save other people life and many other reasons behind it.
“Because of that, We decreed upon the Children of Israel that whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption (done) in the land – it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one – it is as if he had saved mankind entirely.
And our messengers had certainly come to them with clear proofs. Then indeed many of them (even) after that, throughout the land, were transgressors.” (QS. Al-Ma’idah : 32)
The most extreme depiction of an organ donor is the verse above. There is no 100% guarantee of organ’s donor will be successful and did not cause any harm.
There always possibility that it might lead to failure, since all of our body parts or organs are one and created by it’s own meaning and good. If we remove either one or more of course it will create a big impact.
It will cause the body to not work optimally and balanced. This tantamount is equal to bring harm even for something good, and Islam strictly prohibits this. Read about prohibitions of monopoly in Islam.
“And We have certainly honored the children of Adam and carried them on the land and sea and provided for them of the good things and preferred them over much of what We have created, with (definite) preference.” (QS. Al-Isra : 70)
Mankind are the creation of Allah SWT and the perfect one. It is righteous to respect our own body including our organs given by Allah SWT.
“It is He who created for you all of that which is on the earth. Then He directed Himself to the heaven, (His being above all creation), and made them seven heavens, and He is Knowing of all things.” (QS. Al-Baqarah : 29)
There also a hadith that explained the prohibition of using human parts to replace our body parts. From Sayyida Asma bint Abi Bakr narrates that Rasulullah said in the following hadith:
“Allah’s curse is on a woman who wears false hair (if humans) or arranges it for others.” (Muslim)
And Rasulullah also said the sacred of human body even after he/she dead as follows,
“Breaking the bone of a dead person is similar (in sin) to breaking the bone of a living person.” (Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad)
The sin of breaking bones of the dead person as mentioned above are equal to breaking the bones of living person.
The pain they will felt will equal either. According to this hadith we can concluded the pain and sin of organ donation. Since it is not only breaking bones but take out the living organs even the person is medically dead are as painfull as take it when they lives.
That’s the reason why scholars prohibit donating organs. Read about prohibitions of insurance in Islam.
The view that allowed donating organs
While some scholars allowed muslims to donate organs under Quran as written in the verse below,
“He has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah.
However, whoever is forced (by necessity), neither desiring (it) nor transgressing (its limit) there is no sin upon him. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” (QS. Al-Baqarah : 173)
According to the verse above if we are faced by something called emergency and lead us in the state of necessity then we are allowed to do something forbidden but after we eliminated the danger behind it.
Some scholars also think that even human doesn not owning their body but Islam permit human in certain conditions to utilize it just like our wealth. We can used our wealth for others in order to help them.
“Whoever disbelieves in Allah after his belief….except for one who is forced (to renounce his religion) while his heart is secure in faith. But those who (willingly) open their breast to disbelief, upon them is wrath from Allah, and for them is a great punishment.” (QS. An-Nahl : 106)
The verse above mentioned about the possibilty to do forbidden thing in order to save our life. Therefore it is okay for muslims to give their organs in order to save other’s life. Read about how did Islam Islam become popular in India?
But we should take notes of these, the organs are not the only organs we have (hearth, liver, and brain), it is not an external organs (eyes, nose, hand, legs), it is not a paired organs cause it counted as one.
A dead person can donate their organs to those who in needs with the permission from the family and heirs.
And it should not give any harm to the dead or decreasing their honor. Organs like blood or hair which can regenerate their self can be donated. And those are the explanation of is it allowed in Islam to donate organs?