It is believed that this rock was the place from which the prophet Muhammad (saw) ascended to heaven (miraj) during his night trip to Jerusalem. Some scholars believe that the angel Israfeel(peace be upon him) will blow the soor (trumpet) from this place to announce the Day of Judgment.
When the crusaders captured this place, they covered the Rock with marble facing to create an altar and a choir, and the internal inscriptions of the Quran were covered with Latin texts, all of which were aimed at destroying the Muslim presence. Salahuddin Ayubi restored the building after the Muslims reconquered the place.
Jews and Christians believe that this is the place where the Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) was decided to sacrifice his son Ishaq (peace be upon him), after having a dream to do so. This is a fundamental difference from the Muslim belief that it was his eldest son Ismail (peace be upon him) who was willing to sacrifice and that this happened in Mina, Saudi Arabia.
Inside the Dome, the main Quranic inscription above the arches of the inner arcade is addressed to "Followers of the Gospel", that is, to Christians who deny the shocking idea that God gave birth to a son. He warns them against inaccurate and dangerous statements about God (in Sura An-Nisa):
“O people of Scripture! Do not exaggerate in your religion and do not say anything about Allah, except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was only the Messenger of Allah, and His Word, which He passed on to Mary, and the spirit from Him. So believe in Allah and His messengers, and do not say "three" (Trinity) - stop! (this) is better for you! - Allah is only one God. From His transcendental greatness, it is removed that he must have a son. Its all that is in heaven, and all that is in earth. And Allah is sufficient as a Protector. ” [4: 171]
Video of the interior:
Sources: A history of Jerusalem – Karen Armstrong