One of animals that is forbidden in Islam is a pig. This animal is clearly mentioned in Qur’an and Hadith. Many mudharat from this animal makes it belong to the kind of food that is forbidden.
إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ الْخِنزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ بِهِ لِغَيْرِ اللّهِ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلاَ عَادٍ فَلا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
“Indeed Allah only forbids to you a carrion, blood, the flesh of swine, and animals (when it is slaughtered) are mentioned (name) other than Allah.” (QS. Al-Baqarah: 173)
Pigs Are Forbidden to be Consumed, Farmed, or Touched
It is not only the flesh that is forbidden to be consumed, pigs are also forbidden to be farmed or sold, or even touched.
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ حَرَّمَ الْخَمْرَ وَثَمَنَهَا وَحَرَّمَ الْمَيْتَةَ وَثَمَنَهَا وَحَرَّمَ الْخِنْزِيرَ وَثَمَنَهُ
From Abu Hurairah that the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said: “Indeed Allah has forbidden khamr and its sale outcome and forbids a carrion and its sale outcome as well as pigs and its sale outcome.” (Hadith Abu Daud)
Why are all the parts of pig’s body and even its sale outcome forbidden? This has also been explained by Allah in His kalam. A pig contains so many kinds of bacteria and viruses so that it belongs to heavy impure. Allah says,
قُل لاَّ أَجِدُ فِي مَا أُوْحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّماً عَلَى طَاعِمٍ يَطْعَمُهُ إِلاَّ أَن يَكُونَ مَيْتَةً أَوْ دَماً مَّسْفُوحاً أَوْ لَحْمَ خِنزِيرٍ فَإِنَّهُ رِجْسٌ أَوْ فِسْقاً أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللّهِ بِهِ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلاَ عَادٍ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
Say: “I have not found within a revelation which was revealed to me, anything that is forbidden for people who would eat it, unless it is a carrion, or spilled blood, or the flesh of swine, because indeed it is dirty (impure).” (QS. Al-An’am: 145)
Are Impure Pigs the Same As Impure Dogs?
Because a pig belongs to the object that is forbidden, then it also automatically belongs to impure or dirt that has to be cleaned if it is exposed to the body parts or clothes. Even though it is not specifically mentioned about how to clean impure pigs in Islam, however most of theologians believe that impure pigs should be cleaned in accordance with the way to clean impure dogs.
The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said,
طَهُورُ إِنَاءِ أَحَدِكُمْ إِذَا وَلَغَ فِيهِ الْكَلْبُ، أَنْ يَغْسِلَهُ سَبْعَ مَرَّاتٍ أُولَاهُنَّ بِالتُّرَابِ
“The purity of the water container of the one among you if it is licked by a dog, it is washed seven times, in the beginning it is mixed with soil.” (Hadith Muslim no. 279)
Imam Syafi’i in Al-Minhaj 1/13, Maktabah Syamilah also said,
وَمَا نَجُسَ بِمُلَاقَاةِ شَيْءٍ مِنْ كَلْبٍ غُسِلَ سَبْعًا إحْدَاهُنَّ بِتُرَابٍ وَالْأَظْهَرُ تَعَيُّنُ التُّرَابِ، وَ أَنَّ الْخِنْزِيرَ كَكَلْبٍ.
“Anything that becomes impure because it is exposed to the parts of dog, then it is washed seven times, one of them is with soil. If it is visible, it must be with soil (can not be changed with others). And pigs are the same as dogs.”
From that verse, it can be known that the impure in pigs are the same as impure dogs when it comes to clean it. However, it is different with the story of a companion in the Prophet era which was not ordered to clean it in the same way as to clean impure dogs.
From Hadith of Abu Tsa’labah Al-Khusyani radhiyallahu ‘anhu, one day he asked the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam about the permission of using a container (pan) that used to cook a pig that belogs to Ahl al-Kitab.
The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam answered,
فَإِنْ وَجَدْتُمْ غَيْرَهَا فَلاَ تَأْكُلُوا فِيهَا، وَإِنْ لَمْ تَجِدُوا فَاغْسِلُوهَا وَكُلُوا فِيهَا
“If You have another container, do not eat using that container. If You do not have another container, then wash that container, and eat using it.” (Hadith Al-Bukhari no. 5478 and Muslim no. 1930)
Syaikh Muhammad bin Shalih Al-‘Utsaimin rahimahullah explained,
وهذا قياس ضعيف ؛ لأن الخنزير مذكور في القرآن ، وموجود في عهد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، ولم يرد إلحاقه بالكلب ، فالصحيح أن نجاسته كنجاسة غيره ، لا يغسل سبع مرات إحداها بالتراب
“(Equalize pig skin with dog saliva) is a weak qiyas (analogy). Because pigs have been mentioned in Qur’an and have existed in the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam era. However, there is no evidence that equalizes pigs with dogs. Therefore, the right one is the status of impure pigs that are the same with other impure objects. It does not need to be washed until seven times and one of them is mixed with soil, “The amount of the washing (until seven times) is only specifically for impure dogs and it can not be qiyas with other impure, such as pigs. Because worship is tauqifiyyah (based on the verse from Qur’an or As-Sunnah). This is a problem that can not be reached by mind and qiyas. There is no evidence except impure dogs, the amount of the washing process. Pigs have been mentioned in Qur’an and have existed in the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam era. However, there is no evidence that equalizes it (with dogs). Therefore, the status of impure pigs are the same as other impure.
There are also other impure (except dogs), then which is obligatory is to be washed once that removes impure and its remains. If it has not disappeared, then it can be repeated, until the trace disappears, even though it is more than seven times. Either that is washed is soil, clothes, sleeping mats, and containers. This is the opinion of jumhur (majority of theologians). This is based on the words of the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam,
إِذَا أَصَابَ ثَوْبَ إِحْدَاكُنَّ الدَّمُ مِنَ الحَيْضَةِ فَلْتَقْرُصْهُ، ثُمَّ لِتَنْضَحْهُ بِمَاءٍ، ثُمَّ لِتُصَلِّي فِيهِ
‘If (clothes) the one among you is exposed to menstruation blood, then splash it with water, then wash it, after that you are allowed to wear it for prayer.’ (Hadith Al-Bukhari no. 277 and Muslim no. 291)
The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam did not order to wash it with a specific amount. If he would, of course he would mention it as in hadith of dog saliva. Because the purpose is to remove the impure, then if the impure disappears, the status (law) of the impure also disappears.”
That was a brief explanation about how to clean impure pigs in Islam. Hopefully it will be useful and improve our insight and faith. Aamiinn.