After Muhammad began to preach openly, after ten years. During this time, opposition from the pagans has reached such a level that, fearing for the lives of his followers, the Prophet decided to send some of them to Ethiopia. Her ruler, being a Christian, nevertheless agreed to take the immigrants under his special protection.
History Of Prophet Muhammad And The Hijrah
Muslims keep good memory of this act to this day. But in Mecca, believers were persecuted more and more. The followers of Muhammad (saw) were subjected to abuse, violence and even torture. Finally, the moment came when seventy people from among the Prophet's Companions set off on his orders to the city of Yathrib in the hope that this would become a new stage in the spread of Islam. This city was later renamed Medina (which means “Th City”). Later, in the early autumn of 622, Muhammad (saw) with his closest friend and associate Abu Bakr (RA) joins the emigrants. This event coincided with the conspiracy of the Meccan leaders to kill him.
In Mecca, the conspirators, having come to the house of Muhammad, found there only his cousin Ali, who was sleeping in the bed of the Prophet. The enraged Meccans appointed a large ransom for Muhammad’s head and set off in pursuit of him. However, Muhammad (saw) and Abu Bakr (ra) took refuge in a cave. By the will and protection of Allah, the pagans did not notice them, and Muhammad and Abu Bakr continued their journey to Medina (Hijrah). There they were happily greeted by crowds of citizens, as well as Meccans who had moved here earlier to prepare everything.
This is a brief description of the Hijra - an important milestone in the history of Islam. Usually, this word is translated as "relocation", but this is not a completely accurate translation. In fact, it was not just a resettlement, but a carefully planned migration, which marks not only a turning point in history - the beginning of the Islamic faith, but also a new way of life for Muhammad (saw) and all Muslims. From now on, the main organizational principle of the Islamic community is not just blood relationship, but the brotherhood of all Muslims. People accompanying Muhammad during the Hijra were called Muhajiroon's - “those who made the Hijra” or “The Emmigrants”, and in Medina they accepted Islam and became Muslims “Supporters and Helpers”.
Muhammad was well aware of the situation in Medina. Earlier, before the Hijra, an annual pilgrimage was made to Mecca, and the Prophet used this time to call pilgrims to Islam. So a group of residents of Medina heard his call and accepted Islam. They, in turn, offered Muhammad to move to Medina. After Hijra, the exceptional qualities of Muhammad impressed the people of Medina so much that the previously warring tribes and their allies rallied their ranks when, on March 15, 624, Muhammad and his supporters came out against the pagans of Mecca.
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The first battle that took place near the town of Badr calle (The Battle of Badr), now a small town south-west of Medina, had several important consequences. First, the forces of the Muslims were three times less than those of the Meccans. Secondly, the discipline of Muslims who left their homes in Mecca, perhaps for the first time, showed the capabilities of those who were expelled from their hometown. Thirdly, one of the Allied tribes, which promised Muslims in the Battle of Badr support, but then, when the fighting began, did not render it, was expelled from Medina a month after the battle. So, those who called themselves the allies of the Muslims, but secretly opposed them, received a serious warning: no one would tolerate treachery.
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A year later, the Meccans again opposed the Muslims. Having gathered three thousand troops, they met at Uhud Mountain, not far from Medina. Fought at first successfully, the Muslims were defeated, and the Prophet himself was wounded. Since the Muslims were not completely defeated, the ten-thousandth Meccan army attacked Medina again two years later, but with a completely different result. In the “Battle of the Trench,” also known as the “Battle of the Confederates,” Muslims won a significant victory by introducing a new form of defense. From the side of Medina, where the attack was expected, they dug a deep ditch into which the Meccan horsemen fell, while the Muslim archers safely settled on the earthen ramparts from the Medina side. After an inconclusive siege, the Meccans were forced to retreat. After that, Medina became a Muslim city forever.