The Fatih Mosque in Turkish called “Turkish Fatih Cami”, which means “the Conqueror’s Mosque”, was the first purpose-built mosque in Istanbul. It is named after the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, known in Turkish as Fatih Sultan Mehmed.
The mosque was built on the site of one of the most important Christian buildings at that time in the city – the Church of the Holy Apostles. Until 1028 CE, the church was the burial place of all Byzantine emperors (including Constantine), but remained in poor condition. The construction of the mosque began ten years after the conquest of Istanbul, in 1463 CE., And lasted seven years.
The original mosque complex included a madrasah (religious schools), a library, a hospital, a hotel for travelers, and a public kitchen where food was served to the poor. Most of the building material for the mosque complex came from a destroyed church, for example, some of the columns in the courtyard. It was designed by the Greek architect Atik Sinan (Sinan the Elder).
The original mosque was almost completely destroyed by an earthquake in 1766 CE. It was rebuilt in 1771 CE (according to another plan) according to the project of architect Mimar Mehmet Tahir by order of Sultan Mustapha III.
The outer section of the mosque is quite large, it was built to accommodate caravan tents. It is surrounded by a wall, and in the north and south – the buildings of the madrasah (religious school), which accommodate the first Ottoman University. The courtyard of the mosque is considered one of the most beautiful in the city.
This mosque has a central 26-meter dome, supported by four half-domes on each axis, which are all supported by four large marble columns. There are two thin minarets on both sides.
The interior of the Fatih mosque shows a distinct baroque influence and looks more muted than many other large mosques in Istanbul.
The graves of Mehmet II and one of his wives, Gulbahar, are located east of the mosque. The originals were destroyed by the earthquake.
Every Wednesday, the largest street market in Istanbul runs near the Fatih Mosque, which sells food, clothing and household goods.
Source: The rough guide to Istanbul, Wikipedia, Istanbultourstudio.com