Originally published in September 2010.
I begin in the name of Allah, the kindest and most merciful:
Scientists, past and present, on this issue differed, so it should not be turned into an argument. It seems to me that Muslims should pray for prayer "and on Friday." However, one who decides to follow a different opinion must pray to Ẓuhr and will not bear any sin, since this is a legitimate opinion based on correct reasoning and evidence. Mosques should arrange Friday prayers for those who would like to attend.
Reason for difference of opinion
A: The Qur'an verse states that Friday prayer is an obligation: “O ye who believe, when [the adhan] called to prayer on Jumua day [Friday]then go to the remembrance of Allah and leave the trade. It is better for you if you knew.
B: There is a message that the third Khalifa (Caliph), Uthman ibn & Affan, gave permission to some people to skip the prayer: "... then I witnessed Uthman ibn" Afan, and that was on Friday. He prayed before the sermon[[[[khutbah], then made a speech and said: “People. This is the day when two days fell on the same day. So whoever is among the people of the neighborhood from Madina wants to wait for the Friday prayer, they can; and whoever wants to come back [home]I gave them permission. ”
C: There are reports that the Prophet (peace be upon him) allowed people to skip the “prayer”.
Zayd ibn Arkam reported that the Prophet ﷺ had performed “prayers” at the beginning of the day, but then offered deliverance for the Friday prayer and said: “He who wants to pray.”
“Two days were on the same day during Ibn al-Zubayr [a Companion]He kept people from going out until daylight spread. When he came out and delivered a sermon, he did it for a long time. Then he went down and prayed, but the people did not pray at the Friday prayer that day. It was then mentioned by Ibn Abbas, who said: "He acted according to the Sunnah [the way of the Prophet]. "
Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet ﷺ said: “Two days were synchronized together on this day, so whoever prefers may be sufficient for Friday prayers. Soon we will gather.
D: There is a message that the Prophet himself performed the Friday prayer on this day: “The Prophet recited Sura al-A'a and al-Gashiyah in two“ prayers ”and“ Friday prayer ”. When on the same day, when the day and Friday come together, he will still read them both in both prayers.
Only people living in isolated areas [who are normally exempted from attending the Friday prayer] those who leave the city to attend this prayer are exempt from the Friday prayer. This is the opinion of Abu Ḥanīfah , Malik and al-Shafii ,
Reasoning for the first opinion
Verse A cannot be canceled by any report that indicates something else, if it does not have the highest authenticity. This should also be reported by several different people, because this is not something that would be heard only by one or two people.
There seems to be no reasonable reason why one obligation should be terminated because the other has been fulfilled. This is similar to how people should pray Ẓuhr after prayer.
Report B shows that the leader of the Muslims released only a certain group of people [who normally don’t need to pray the Friday prayer because they don’t live in a city] and none of the Companions objected to his decision. This implies that they understood that this was consistent with the practice of the Prophet ﷺ.
Testimony C may be common in the formulation, but should be understood as being limited to a specific group of people based on other evidence.
Most of the C evidence is of dubious authenticity.
Report D indicates that the Prophet himself prayed for it, and he obviously had other people with him.
The one who performed this prayer is exempt from the Friday prayer. but should still pray Ẓuhr. This is the opinion of Ashmad. This is also the opinion of later scholars such as Ibn Taymiyah , al-Shoukani, Ibn Baz , and Sayid Sabik.
Reasoning for a second opinion
The evidence for C is authentic enough to prove that the Prophet ﷺ made an exception to the rule in order to make life easier for Muslims.
The sermon for Friday prayer is an addition to the Shura prayer. Since one of the sermons has already been heard, there is no need for another set later in the day.
Friday prayer is a “yes” type, and there is no need for two of them in one day. When two acts of worship of one genre come together, one of them falls, the way voodoo " (ablution) is not required when taking a bath[[[[gusl],
Obviously, there is a legitimate difference of opinion both in clarity and in the authenticity of these two reports.