Conditions for the Validity of Prayer
The conditions of prayer are the matters that are not part of the prayer, but must be satisfied before starting the prayer. They are:
Islam: Prayer is not valid from a blasphemer.
To be at the age of mental discrimination (mumayyiz), i.e., the age at which the child understands when addressed and answers when asked.
To be pure from both ritual impurities. One must have wudu’, and clear of the states of minor and major ritual impurity.
The clothes, body, place, and what one is carrying must be pure (tahir). If one prays while carrying in one’s pocket a piece of cloth that had najas-filth on it, one’s prayer is invalid.
To cover one’s unlawful nakedness. For the man this is from his belly button to his knees. The woman has to cover her entire body except for her face and hands.
To be certain that the prayer time has set in.
Not to deem any of its integrals recommended.
To direct one’s chest toward the Qiblah, which is in Makkah.
If one leaves out any one of these conditions, one’s prayer is invalid.