Cleanliness is next to godliness. Islam is a religion that pays attention to the cleanliness. From Abi Malik Al-Asy’ari, he said, the Prophet saw. said, “Purity is next to godliness, Alhamdulillah weighs the scale, Subhanallah walhamdulillah fills the space between the sky and earth, prayer is the light, alms is the real proof, patience is the light, Qur’an is hujjah (that defends and curses). Every human works until there is who sells himself, until he becomes independent or wretch.” (Haidth Muslim)
Pure from impure is one of the valid conditions of worship in Islam, especially prayer.
عَنْ أَبِي الْمَلِيحِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَا يَقْبَلُ اللَّهُ صَلَاةً بِغَيْرِ طُهُورٍ وَلَا صَدَقَةً مِنْ غُلُولٍ (رواه النسائي
From Abil Malih from his father, he said, the Prophet saw. said, “Allah will not accept prayer without purify. And Allah will not accept alms and corruption.” (Hadith An-Nasa’i)
Islam itself divides some impure into certain groups. The following is the brief explanation about 3 groups of impure in Islam and how to clean it that needs to know:
1. Najis Mukhaffafah
Najis Mukhaffafah or light impure is an impure that comes from the urine of a baby boy who has not eaten anything or is still breastfeeding. How to purify this impure is quite easy that is only by splashing water without washing it with a lot of water. However, this only applies on the urine of a boy, for the urine of a girl still has to be washed to remove the impure.
From Abu Samh Malik radhiallahu’anhu, he said,
يُغْسَلُ مِنْ بَوْلِ الْجَارِيَةِ وَيُرَشُّ مِنْ بَوْلِ الْغُلاَمِ
“The urine of a girl is washed, while the urine of a boy is splashed.” (Hadith Abu Daud 377, An-Nasa’i 303, that were validated by Al Albani in Shahih An-Nasa’i)
2. Najis Mutawassithah
Najis Mutawassithah or medium impure is all kinds of impure that come out from anus or human or animal genitals. The meaning here is urine, feces, madzi or mani, milk from forbidden animals and others. How to clean this medium impure is by washing or rinsing it.
». قَالَ فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ دَعَا بِدَلْوٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ فَصَبَّهُ عَلَيْهِ.
“(One day) a Bedouin urinated in mosque. Then some people (who are the companions) stood up. Then the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said, “Leave it and do not stop (the urinating).” After that Bedouin completed his urination, the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam then asked for a bucket of water, then he flushed the urine.” (Hadith Muslim no. 284)
From ‘Ali bin Abi Thalib, he radhiyallahu ‘anhu said,
كُنْتُ رَجُلاً مَذَّاءً وَكُنْتُ أَسْتَحْيِى أَنْ أَسْأَلَ النَّبِىَّ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- لِمَكَانِ ابْنَتِهِ فَأَمَرْتُ الْمِقْدَادَ بْنَ الأَسْوَدِ فَقَالَ « فَسَأَلَهُ يَغْسِلُ ذَكَرَهُ وَيَتَوَضَّأُ ».
“I belong to those people who often come out madzi. However, I am ashamed to ask this to the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam because the position of his daughter (Fatimah) besides me. Then I ordered Al Miqdad bin Al Aswad to ask the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. Then he gave the answer to Al Miqdad, “Order him to wash his genital then tell him to wudu“.”
If there are a lot of wadi coming out, then that person should wash it by taking a bath so that it is clean and can do the prayer again.
Ibnu ‘Abbas radhiyallahu ‘anhuma said,
الْمَنِىُّ وَالْمَذْىُ وَالْوَدْىُ ، أَمَّا الْمَنِىُّ فَهُوَ الَّذِى مِنْهُ الْغُسْلُ ، وَأَمَّا الْوَدْىُ وَالْمَذْىُ فَقَالَ : اغْسِلْ ذَكَرَكَ أَوْ مَذَاكِيرَكَ وَتَوَضَّأْ وُضُوءَكَ لِلصَّلاَةِ.
“Regarding mani, madzi and wadi; there is also mani, then it is required to take a bath. Meanwhile, wadi and madzi, Ibnu ‘Abbas said, “Wash your genital, then wudu’ as your wudu’ for prayer.”
It is similar with menstruation blood.
From Asma’ binti Bakr, said, “A woman once came to the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam then said,
إِحْدَانَا يُصِيبُ ثَوْبَهَا مِنْ دَمِ الْحَيْضَةِ كَيْفَ تَصْنَعُ بِهِ
“There are clothes among us that are exposed to menstruation blood. What should we do?”
The Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam answered,
تَحُتُّهُ ثُمَّ تَقْرُصُهُ بِالْمَاءِ ثُمَّ تَنْضَحُهُ ثُمَّ تُصَلِّى فِيهِ
“Rub and scrape the clothes with water, then splash it. Then pray with it.”
3. Najis Mughallazhah
This impure is a heavy impure that how to clean it must with a specific way. Those that belong to heavy impure are lick, dirt, and pigs and dogs blood.
From Abu Hurairah, he said that the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said,
طُهُورُ إِنَاءِ أَحَدِكُمْ إِذَا وَلَغَ فِيهِ الْكَلْبُ أَنْ يَغْسِلَهُ سَبْعَ مَرَّاتٍ أُولاَهُنَّ بِالتُّرَابِ
“How to purify the container of the one among you if it is licked by a dog is to be washed seven times and in the beginning with soil.”
That was 3 groups of impure in Islam and how to clean it that needs to know. That is all for this brief article. Hopefully it is useful and improve our insight about how to deal with impure.